Efficacy of Urena lobata in Phytoremediation of Spent Engine Oil Polluted Soil
Keywords:Urena lobata, Spent Engine Oil, Phytoremediation, Pollutants
Purpose: The research study aimed to determine the efficacy of Urena lobata in phytoremediation of spent engine oil polluted soil of Makurdi, Nigeria as to determine the amount of some inorganic pollutants (Cd, Pb, As and Cr) removed from the soil by the annual plant with time.
Methodology: Urena lobata was grown in twelve (12) Plastic containers filled with four kilograms (4 kg) of sandy-loam soil contaminated with 0 mL, 20 mL, 40 mL, 60 mL, 80 mL and 100 mL and monitored for twelve weeks (12) after planting.
Findings: The tissue analysis of heavy metals shows that Urena lobata has the highest percentage absorbance and remediation capacity of arsenic (0.06 mg/kg) with percentage absorbance of 37.5 % and followed by cadmium 0.04 mg/kg of pollutant with percentage absorbance of 32.56 %. Equally, from the result and analysis obtained on remediation of lead pollutant, Urena lobata has remediation capacity of 0.11 mg/kg with percentage absorbance of 8.53 %. Also, Urena lobata has absorbance and remediation capacity of chromium pollutant with the mean tissue concentration level of 0.26 mg/kg. The absorption rate by the test plant measured were spent engine oil concentration level dependent. Finally, the results showed that the studied plant (Urena lobata) screened for total metal concentration showed value of bio-concentration factor (BCF) < 1 for all heavy metal pollutants, and also high value of translocation factor (TF) > 1 in the following order; Pb (2.000) > As (1.667) > Cr (1.567) > Cd (1.500) mg/kg and as a consequence Urena lobata plant was efficient in translocation of metal pollutants from roots to shoots.
Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: Urena lobata can then be considered as potential candidates for phytoextraction and phytoremediation of soils contaminated with Cd, Pb, As and Cr. Facility owners and industrialists should adopt and invest on the use of phytoremediation technologies in the remediation of polluted sites with spent engine oil as the technology can remediate more than one pollutant at a time and environmentally friendly.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). (1997). Toxicology profile for used mineral based crankcase oil. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service Press, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Wang, J; Jia, C. R; Wong, C. K and Wong, P. K (2000). Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon created in lubricating oils. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 120: 381- 396.
Joanna, B. K; Ryszard, M; Michal, G and Tomasz, Z (2018). Pollution indices as useful tools for a comprehensive evaluation of the degree of soil contamination – A review. Environment, Geochemical and Health. 40: 2395-2420.
Odjegba, V. J; Sadiq, A. O (2002). Effect of spent engine oil on the growth parameters, chlorophyll and protein levels of Amaranthus hybridus L. Environment, 22: 23-28.
Anoliefo, G. O and Edegbai, B. O (2000). Effect of spent engine oil as an oil contaminant on the growth of two eggplant species; Solanum melongena L. and S. incanum. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1, 21-25.
Osubor, C. C and Anoliefo, G. O (2003). Inhibitory effect of spent lubrication oil on the growth and respiratory function of Arachis hypogea L. Benin Science Digest, 1, 73-79.
Olugboji, O. A and Ogunwole, O. A (2008). Use of spent engine oil. AU J.T. 12(1): 67- 71
Subhashini, V and Swamy, A.V.V. S (2013). Phytoremediation of Cadmium and chromium from contaminated soils using Physalis minima Linn. Am Int J Res Form Appl Nat Sci, 3: 119-122
Kathal, R; Malhotra, P and Chaudhary, V (2016). Phytoremediation of Cadmium from Polluted Soil. Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation, 7: 376.
Jia, L; Bi, Y. F; Jing, L. L, Zhou, S. A and Kong, D. Y (2010). Two new compounds from Urena lobata L. J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res. 12:962-967.
Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh (MPB) (2017). Link: http://www.mpbd.info/plants/urena-lobata.php.
Gao, X. L; Liao, Y; Wang, J; Liu, X. Y; Zhong, K; Huang, Y. N; Gao, H; Gao, B and Xu Z. J (2015). Discovery of a potent anti-yeast triterpenoid saponin, clematoside-S from Urena lobata L. International Journal of Molecular Science 16:4731-4743
Rudnick, R. L and Goa, S (2003). Composition of the continental crust, treatise on geochemistry. Treatise on Geochemistry. 3: 1-64
Babu, S. S; Madhuri, D. B and Reddy, D. S (2016). Anxiolytic anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Urena lobata leaf. Int. J. Pharm. Res. Health Sci. 4:1284-1290.
Akomolafe, G. F; Onwusiri, K. C. and Adokpa, F. A (2018). Phytoremediation and agricultural productivity – A mini review. Journal of Floriculture and Landscaping, 4: 15-19
Sadowsky, M. J (1999). In phytoremediation: Past promises and future practices proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology, Halifax, 72 - 85.
Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC) (2009). Phytotechnology: Technical and Regulatory Guidance and Decision Trees, Revised. Phyto-3.
William, J (2008). The use of phytoremediation technology for abatement soil and groundwater pollution in Tanzania: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 10 (1):15-17.
Wilberforce, J. O. O (2015). Phytoremediation Potentials of Common Nigerian Weeds for the Purpose of Cleaning up a Lead-Zinc Derelict Mine. American Chemical Science Journal, 6 (3): 158-163
Agboola, O. O; Orji, D. I; Olatunji, O. A. and Olowoyo, J. O (2016). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by moringa oleifera in automobile workshops. West African Journal of
Applied Ecology, 24(1): 9-18
Kamal, U; Mohammad, A. A and Mohammed, H. A (2019). The assessment of cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel tolerance and bioaccumulation by shrub plant. Tetraena qataranse. Scientific Reports 9:5658
WHO (1996). Permissible limits of heavy metals in soil and plants, (Genava: World Health Organization), Switzerland.
Ruqia, N; Muslim, K; Muhammad, M; Hameed, U. R;; Naveed, U. R; Surrya, S; Nosheen, A; Muhammad, S; Mohib, U; Muhammad, R and Zeenat, S (2015). Accumulation of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe) in the soil, water and plants and analysis of physic-chemical parameters of soil and water collected from Tanda dam Kohat. Journal of pharmaceutical, Science and Research, 7(3): 89-97
Abidemi, O. O (2011). Levels of Pb, Fe, Cd and Co in Soils of Automobile Workshop in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 15(2): 279–282.
Abhilash, P. C; Srivastava, S; Srivastava, P; Singh, B; Jafri, A and Singh, N (2011). Influence of rhizospheric microbial inoculation and tolerant plant species on the rhizoremediation of lindane. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 74: 127-130
Qihang, W; Shizhong, W; Palaniswamy, T; Qingfei, L; Han, Z; Jun, B and Rongliang, Q (2011). 'Phytostabilization Potential of Jatropha Curcas L. in Polymetallic Acid Mine Tailings', International Journal of Phytoremediation, 13: 8, 788 — 804
Siahaan, M.T.A., Ambariyanto, Yulianto, B (2013). Pengaruh pemberian timbal (Pb) dengan konsentrasi berbeda terhadap klorofil, kandungan timbal pada akar dan daun, serta struktur histologi jaringan akar anakan mangrove Rhizophora sp. mucronata. Journal of Marine Research. 2(2): 111-119
Sopyan, R. S and Sumarni, N. K (2014). Fitoakumulasi merkuri oleh akar tanaman bayam duri (Amarantus spinosus Linn.) pada tanah tercemar. Journal of Natural Science. 3(1): 31-39
Takarina, N. D and Pin, T. G (2017). Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) and Translocation Factor (TF) of Heavy Metals in Mangrove Trees of Blanakan Fish Farm. Makara Journal of Science, 21/2, 77-81