American Journal of Environment Studies American Journal of Environment Studies is internationally peer reviewed journal by AJPO. The journal aims at promoting understanding of vital environmental concerns, seek publication of major behavior of upcoming contaminant, effect of human activities on environment, human exposure to environment contamination, its effect and control. The journal being of high factor is also a hub for all those who seek to make the earth a better place. AJPO Journals Limited en-US American Journal of Environment Studies 2790-5594 An Assessment of Landslides along Mountain Forest Roads: Bamenda Ring Road Segment through Bafut and Befang Forests on the Cameroon Volcanic Line. <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Landslides cause distress in communities worldwide, disrupt socio-economic activities and cause damage to roads infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to undertake a comprehensive assessment of the recurrent landslide events along the Bamenda Ring Road (BRR) segment through the Bafut and Bafang mountain forests in the North West Region of Cameroon, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Topographic and geologic map studies, foot-borne surveys, hydro-meteorological data analysis and soil permeability tests were employed to the study. Results at the time of this study reveal 35 new slide scarps in Bafut and 16 along the Befang forests.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The topography culminates between 670-1300 m altitude, while more than 50% of the slopes in the study area are convex, the rest are convexo-linear, concave, while a few of them are linear. Natural slope gradients vary from 35-60<sup>0</sup>, while prevalent number of slides occur on sub-vertical road-cut embankments. The slides are classified as small volume, short distance-travelled shallow translational than rotational debris flows. Base rocks of the study zone are essentially coarse-grained leucocratic granites with quartz, feldspars, biotite and muscovite minerals which appear liable to weathering. Meanwhile, residual soil samples are permeable, have increased pore water pressure and has a high liquefaction tendency due to its high clay content. The absence of recent or historic earthquakes suggests that causative factors of landslides could be linked to steep gradients, lithology, deep weathering profiles, considerable affinity for water of the weathered materials and prolonged rainy seasons. As such we highlight the contribution of the landslide hazard with the direct risk based on the extensive deterioration of the road characterized by multiple road defects and reduced socio-economic activities and the indirect risk linked to difficulties in the movement of goods and persons and management of resources.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong> This study recommend present officials to improve on their documentation and skills in monitoring rainfall and landslide hazard and manage disaster emergency; sensitize the population on landslide hazard and associated risk. There is need for government to establish a road authority for the management of landslide hazard, disaster relief and the land inside and outside the road.</p> E M Amah V Y Katte R T Ghogomu V K Kamgang Copyright (c) 2022 American Journal of Environment Studies 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 5 1 60 86 10.47672/ajes.1160 Sustainable Strategies for Solving Perennial Water Crisis in Enugu Using Infiltration/Sump Technology <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Perennial water crises is a monster that threatens the very essence of human existence globally. Efforts have been made to stamp out water crises by the provision of pipe borne water, artisanal well, etc but to no avail. Notwithstanding these efforts, a visit to the streets of Enugu showed the excruciating hardship faced by the people as a result of scarcity of portable water. This study aimed at determining the current condition of portable water supply, challenges to sustainable water supply as well as suitability and sustainability of harvesting portable water through infiltration/sump technology adaptation in solving Enugu metropolis water crises.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The survey and experimental research methods were used. A total number of 48 water samples were aseptically collected from 3 points on a weekly basis. The points are A: from the flowing Asata River, B: from the infiltration sump and, C: from the locally fabricated water treatment plant. These samples were subjected to physical, chemical and biological analysis to determine the level of impurities, chemical and biological pollutants contained therein. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the water samples. Direct culture plate count was used to determine bacterial load while sample concentration method was used for the microscopic examination.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The results were presented in tables and analyzed with simple percentages. It was discovered that water supply to Enugu residents has been abysmally low compared to the Enugu State Water Corporation (ENSWC) installed capacity.&nbsp; Out of the six (6) years under study, the highest annual water production of 6,082,962 m<sup>3</sup> representing 12.62% of the installed capacity, supplied to the inhabitants of Enugu metropolis was achieved in the year 2018. The study discovered that the raw Asata River is contaminated with (a) heavy metals, (b) E. coli and Coliforms (c) debris, non-metallic contaminants etc. However, with the application of sump/infiltration technology and minimal treatment the river is a veritable and sustainable alternative to the epileptic pipe borne water supply from ENSWC to the inhabitants.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> Adaptation and application of sump/infiltration smart indigenous water harvesting technology in solving the perennial water crisis in Enugu metropolis is recommended.&nbsp;</p> Philips Nnajiofor Egbo Stephen Chibuike Anih Collins Nnamani Obinna Copyright (c) 2022 American Journal of Environment Studies 2022-07-11 2022-07-11 5 1 27 47 10.47672/ajes.1116 RECREATION ACTIVITIES THAT HAVE THE GREATEST NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE ATTRIBUTES IN NATIONAL PARKS OF CENTRAL KENYA <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Recreation sites and parks are exposed to degradation unless stringent conservation measures are undertaken. Recreational activities undertaken by visitors such as; camping, hiking and climbing, game driving, bird watching, bicycling, mountain biking, game viewing, and picnicking among others put huge pressure on the parks resources. The aim of the study is to determine the recreation activities that have the greatest negative environmental impact on environmental resource attributes in national parks of central Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The descriptive survey research design was used. The study was conducted in the two designated national parks in Central Kenya region: Mt. Kenya and Aberdares. Stratified random sampling was used to ensure that the KWS and KFS officers in managerial, tour guide, maintenance, and security levels were represented.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Two hundred and sixty three 263(79.9%) responded to the questionnaires by completely filling and returning them. Descriptive statistics that included frequencies and percentages were used to organize and summarize the data. Tables and bar charts were drawn to present the collected data. Independent Sample T-test was conducted to compare the mean of the visitors and staff on the perceived effect of recreation activities on environmental resource attributes. It is only on soil where the two groups were found to be significantly different ( (visitors) =2.14, staff) =1.50, <em>t</em>=6.06, df =233, p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: </strong>The study therefore concluded that parks environmental resource attributes are negatively affected by recreation activities in the national parks in the Central Kenya region. Through monitoring of conditions, managers will be able to more clearly identify when specific impacts have become so pronounced as to demand management attention.</p> Benson Gathoni Simon P. Munayi Janet Chumba Copyright (c) 2022 American Journal of Environment Studies 2022-01-31 2022-01-31 5 1 1 8 10.47672/ajes.923 Chemical Analysis of DG Cement’s Municipal Waste Used for Refuse Derived Fuel <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Rampant population growth particularly in South Asian region has turned solid waste management a challenging task. Huge resources are squandered for collection and disposal without considering the recyclable and energy potential. However, in Pakistan, some companies are utilizing waste as refuse derived fuel (RDF) – a process to separate combustibles from municipal waste in order to generate energy.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For RDF analysis, DG cement RDF plant near Lakhodair landfill site Lahore was selected in order to collect RDF raw waste, which are then converted in to RDF pellets for further analysis. The chemical analysis consisted of proximate analysis (moisture content, volatile combustion matter, fixed carbon &amp; ash content) and net calorific value (NCV) along with heavy metal analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Upon analysis, percentage of volatile combustible matter (VCM) tetra pack and jute was about 84% followed by other waste and thermo-pole 78%. Fixed carbon (FC) of wrappers and paper waste was about 24 and 16% whereas Ash content (AC) was recorded highest in textile, shoppers, thermos-pole and foam with 14% while rest 10%. The moisture content (MC) of other waste type followed by shopping bags and jute was found highest among other component such as 3.5%, 24% and 20.9% respectively. Moreover, the highest calorific value was obtained in plastic wrappers (61.26 MJ/kg) whereas lowest was observed in jute (6.4 MJ/kg). For heavy metal analysis such as Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Copper (Cu), Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) was used; highest concentration of copper was observed in the foam waste (45.5 mg/kg) and the lowest value was observed in thermos-pole (8.5 mg/kg). All the results were in EURITS standards range.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> Therefore, in the light of above analysis, it was confirmed that collected waste is highly feasible for RDF in DG cements.</p> S Bilal Copyright (c) 2022 American Journal of Environment Studies 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 5 1 48 59 10.47672/ajes.1152 An Integrated GIS Method – The Influence of Human Activities on Shoreline Change in Western Indian Small Island States: A Two Centuries Analysis of Urban West Unguja - Zanzibar Shoreline <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Urban areas have a high impact on shoreline changes that are more influenced by human activities rather than natural factors, together with hard structural mitigation and management, which are more practiced compared to other areas. This paper describes shoreline changes of small islands specifically; the shoreline of Urban West of Unguja Island in Zanzibar United Republic of Tanzania. This island has been changed for 174 years in different stages due to human activities including; reclamation of Darajani creek, port expansion at Malindi, Mtoni beach nourishment, sewer and stormwater channeling at Kilimani, construction of walls, groins, jetties, etc. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study uses an integrated method to analyze and detect changes using a sketch plan survey map of 1846 and 1892, a topographic map of 1907 and 1987, an aerial photo of 2004, Landsat images, and google images of 2019 and 2020. These maps were carefully georeferenced with latitude and longitudes, digitized using ArcGIS and demarcated along the study area supported with ground truth observation to analyze the coastal shoreline changes.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The results show that the area experiences more accretion rather than retreat, integrated analysis and projections of the overall accretion and retreat for 174 years is 1,527,693.85 m<sup>2</sup> (1.53 km<sup>2</sup>) and -936,135.48 m<sup>2</sup> ( -0.94 km) receptively. The average accretion of land from 1846 to 2020 is 8,779.85m<sup>2</sup>/yr. (0.0088 km<sup>2</sup>/yr.) and retreat is -5,380.09m<sup>2</sup>/yr. (-0.0054 km<sup>2</sup>/yr.). A major accretion was observed and detected during the early 1900s to late 1987 which were major land transformation while other minor development activities were between 2010 to 2020. Sea walls, groins, beach nourishment, mangroves, barrier islands, and islets are major management practices of the shoreline which show a positive impact.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong> The study finds it more appropriate to use multi datasets as an integrated method to analyze long-term coastal shoreline changes especially when there is limited data.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Salim Hamad Bakar Shafi Noor Islam Copyright (c) 2022 American Journal of Environment Studies 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 5 1 9 26 10.47672/ajes.1025