American Journal of Environment Studies American Journal of Environment Studies is internationally peer reviewed journal by AJPO. The journal aims at promoting understanding of vital environmental concerns, seek publication of major behavior of upcoming contaminant, effect of human activities on environment, human exposure to environment contamination, its effect and control. The journal being of high factor is also a hub for all those who seek to make the earth a better place. en-US (Journal Admin) (Journal Support) Mon, 31 Jan 2022 13:50:50 +0300 OJS 60 RECREATION ACTIVITIES THAT HAVE THE GREATEST NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE ATTRIBUTES IN NATIONAL PARKS OF CENTRAL KENYA <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Recreation sites and parks are exposed to degradation unless stringent conservation measures are undertaken. Recreational activities undertaken by visitors such as; camping, hiking and climbing, game driving, bird watching, bicycling, mountain biking, game viewing, and picnicking among others put huge pressure on the parks resources. The aim of the study is to determine the recreation activities that have the greatest negative environmental impact on environmental resource attributes in national parks of central Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The descriptive survey research design was used. The study was conducted in the two designated national parks in Central Kenya region: Mt. Kenya and Aberdares. Stratified random sampling was used to ensure that the KWS and KFS officers in managerial, tour guide, maintenance, and security levels were represented.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Two hundred and sixty three 263(79.9%) responded to the questionnaires by completely filling and returning them. Descriptive statistics that included frequencies and percentages were used to organize and summarize the data. Tables and bar charts were drawn to present the collected data. Independent Sample T-test was conducted to compare the mean of the visitors and staff on the perceived effect of recreation activities on environmental resource attributes. It is only on soil where the two groups were found to be significantly different ( (visitors) =2.14, staff) =1.50, <em>t</em>=6.06, df =233, p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: </strong>The study therefore concluded that parks environmental resource attributes are negatively affected by recreation activities in the national parks in the Central Kenya region. Through monitoring of conditions, managers will be able to more clearly identify when specific impacts have become so pronounced as to demand management attention.</p> Benson Gathoni, Dr. Simon P. Munayi , Janet Chumba Copyright (c) 2022 American Journal of Environment Studies Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0300 An Integrated GIS Method – The Influence of Human Activities on Shoreline Change in Western Indian Small Island States: A Two Centuries Analysis of Urban West Unguja - Zanzibar Shoreline <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Urban areas have a high impact on shoreline changes that are more influenced by human activities rather than natural factors, together with hard structural mitigation and management, which are more practiced compared to other areas. This paper describes shoreline changes of small islands specifically; the shoreline of Urban West of Unguja Island in Zanzibar United Republic of Tanzania. This island has been changed for 174 years in different stages due to human activities including; reclamation of Darajani creek, port expansion at Malindi, Mtoni beach nourishment, sewer and stormwater channeling at Kilimani, construction of walls, groins, jetties, etc. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study uses an integrated method to analyze and detect changes using a sketch plan survey map of 1846 and 1892, a topographic map of 1907 and 1987, an aerial photo of 2004, Landsat images, and google images of 2019 and 2020. These maps were carefully georeferenced with latitude and longitudes, digitized using ArcGIS and demarcated along the study area supported with ground truth observation to analyze the coastal shoreline changes.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The results show that the area experiences more accretion rather than retreat, integrated analysis and projections of the overall accretion and retreat for 174 years is 1,527,693.85 m<sup>2</sup> (1.53 km<sup>2</sup>) and -936,135.48 m<sup>2</sup> ( -0.94 km) receptively. The average accretion of land from 1846 to 2020 is 8,779.85m<sup>2</sup>/yr. (0.0088 km<sup>2</sup>/yr.) and retreat is -5,380.09m<sup>2</sup>/yr. (-0.0054 km<sup>2</sup>/yr.). A major accretion was observed and detected during the early 1900s to late 1987 which were major land transformation while other minor development activities were between 2010 to 2020. Sea walls, groins, beach nourishment, mangroves, barrier islands, and islets are major management practices of the shoreline which show a positive impact.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong> The study finds it more appropriate to use multi datasets as an integrated method to analyze long-term coastal shoreline changes especially when there is limited data.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Salim Hamad Bakar, Shafi Noor Islam Copyright (c) 2022 American Journal of Environment Studies Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +0300