• Y Mukhtar Bayero University, Kano PMB 3011, Kano, Nigeria
  • A Galalain Bayero University, Kano PMB 3011, Kano, Nigeria
  • U Yunusa Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey


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Diabetes, pancreas, symptoms, treatment, herbal therapy


Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders that affect the body’s ability to make or use insulin. Diabetes mellitus (DM), or simply diabetes, is a group of chronic metabolic diseases in which a person experience high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or because the body cells do not effectively use or respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). Conventionally, diabetes has been divided into three types namely: Type 1 DM or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in which body fails to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This is also termed as "juvenile diabetes". Type 2 DM or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, with or without an absolute insulin deficiency. This type was previously referred to as or "adult-onset diabetes". The third main type is gestational diabetes which occurs when women without a previous history of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level during her pregnancy and may metamorphose to type 2 DM after giving birth. Currently available pharmacotherapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus includes insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Thus, the present review underscores the issues surrounding the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment (especially use of anti-diabetic herbal species) of this killer disease with a view to suppressing its global spread and resurgence.


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Author Biographies

Y Mukhtar, Bayero University, Kano PMB 3011, Kano, Nigeria


Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bayero University, Kano PMB 3011, Kano, Nigeria


A Galalain, Bayero University, Kano PMB 3011, Kano, Nigeria

Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bayero University, Kano PMB 3011, Kano, Nigeria

U Yunusa, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences,

Department of Biochemistry, 


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How to Cite

Mukhtar, Y., Galalain, A., & Yunusa, U. (2020). A MODERN OVERVIEW ON DIABETES MELLITUS: A CHRONIC ENDOCRINE DISORDER. European Journal of Biology, 5(2), 1 - 14. https://doi.org/10.47672/ejb.409