European Journal of Physical Sciences <p>European Journal of physical sciences (EJPS) is a highly peer reviewed journal published by AJPO. With a global authors and readership, it is truly an international journal devoted to improving and maintaining the concepts taught in physics in higher education institutions.</p><p>The journal is particularly of great importance to physics scholars and upcoming scientist who are dedicated to make the world an even better place through science. The journal is prominently known for its competitive prices which gives the scholars and researchers who want to publish their scholarly work. The papers published under this journal are indexed with google scholar.</p> en-US (Journal Admin) (Journal Support) Fri, 14 Jan 2022 11:54:09 +0300 OJS 60 EFFECT OF IMMOBILIZATION PROTOCOL ON CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF CRL IMMOBILIZED ONTO OIL PALM LEAVE-SILICA-MAGNETITE SUPPORT <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The purpose of the study was to establish the optimal conditions required for the attachment of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) onto silica extracted from ash of acid treated oil palm leaves, for maximum catalytic efficiency.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Six different concentrations of CRL solution ranging from 1 mg/mL to 6 mg/mL, immobilization time of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h as well as immobilization temperature of 4, 25, 30, 35 40 and 45 &nbsp;were independently investigated. In this study, the parameter to be investigated was varied while others were fixed. The effectiveness of the immobilization protocol were assessed using four catalytic parameters – protein loading, immobilization yield, specific activity and ester yield.&nbsp; &nbsp;Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA (IBM SPSS -20.0) software while significant differences within ranges in a parameter, if any was given as p &nbsp;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The study revealed that the optimal values of concentration of CRL solution, immobilization time and immobilization temperature required to immobilize CRL onto SiO<sub>2</sub>-MNPs derived from oil palm leave were 5. 0 mg/mL, 16 h and 25 &nbsp;respectively. At this optimal conditions, protein loading (33.3, 38.1, 20.5 mg/g), immobilization yield (57.8, 70.0, 59.0 %), specific activity (74.6, 63.5, 72.2 U/g) and ester yield (85.0, 74.1, 85.5 %) respectively were achieved.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> Optimization of the immobilization protocol for immobilizing CRL onto silica support extracted from the highly abundant oil palm leave – an agricultural biomass, will not just produce a biocatalyst of with high catalytic efficiency but would circumvent the environmental pollution arising from dumping of large quantities of the biomass into the ecosystem. It is recommended from the findings of this study that 5.0 mg/mL CRL solution be immobilized onto glutaraldehyde activated SiO<sub>2</sub>-MNPs support matrix derived from oil palm leave for 16 h at 25.</p> Emmanuel Onoja, Comfort Onoja, Christiana Joseph Adah Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Physical Sciences Sun, 17 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FLOW STRUCTURE OF POLAR SOLVENT AND UNREFINED HYDROCARBON FLOWING IN A CYLINDRICAL BIFURCATED CHANNEL <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The effect of geometric bifurcated system on flow of fluid may be greatly influenced by the angle of bifurcation or the density, capillary action etc. and other physical properties of the fluid. The aim of this work is to carry out a comparative analysis of the flow structure of polar solvent and unrefined hydrocarbons in a cylindrical bifurcated channel.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>An experimental method was used to study the flow structure of water and crude oil, representing polar solvent and unrefined hydrocarbon respectively flowing through a bifurcated channel, with angles of bifurcation ranging from 10<sup>o</sup>, 20<sup>o</sup>, 30<sup>o</sup>, 40<sup>o</sup>, 50<sup>o</sup> and 60<sup>o</sup>, corresponding to 5<sup>o</sup>, 10<sup>o</sup>, 15<sup>o</sup>, 20<sup>o</sup>, 25<sup>o</sup> and 30<sup>o</sup> measured from the centerline of the main channel. The fluid samples were allowed to flow through the bifurcated channels and the time taken to recover 100ml, 200ml, 300ml 400ml and 500ml in a beaker is recorded. The bifurcated angle is resolved into vertical and horizontal components and the total length for both components obtained, as the flow velocity is computed for both lengths and the results presented.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The profile of resulted shows that for polar solvents such as water, the velocity gradient increases as the vertical distance increases and horizontal distance decrease correspondingly due to increasing bifurcation angle, as a similar trend is also observed for crude oil.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>For both samples representing their respective class of fluid, the result further shows the existence of velocity difference at opposite walls of the bifurcated daughter channels. The wall at higher velocity is usually the site where the skin friction that changes the flow from laminar to turbulent is created. The experimental result confirmed the effects of bifurcation on flow stability to significant in a more viscous fluid.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong>&nbsp;Fluid samples with different physical properties should be investigated using this experimental technic, and the impact of two-stage bifurcated system can also be investigated to ascertain the degree of stability offer by the geometric bifurcated network system.</p> Chijioke A. Egbo, Tamunoimi M. Abbey, Alalibo T. Ngiangia, Jane A. Dappa, Kelechi U. Ugoji Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Physical Sciences Thu, 03 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Effect of Aluminium Heat sinks on the temPerature reduction and electrical efficiency of monocrystalline solar panels <p>High temperatures could hinder the effective working of solar panels and negatively impact on their performance. This research employed the passive cooling method using aluminium heat sinks with diagonal and vertical fins with holes attached to the back of two monocrystalline solar panels to reduce their surface temperatures. While the vertical-fins heat sink produced a temperature reduction of 2.48 &nbsp;(5.9 %), the diagonal- fins heat sink only provided a temperature reduction of 1.25 &nbsp;(2.9 %). The short circuit current ( &nbsp;of the solar panels reduced at high temperatures and so did their fill factors (FF) and efficiencies. The highest efficiency of 6.8 % was for the module with the vertical-fins and holes while the lowest efficiency of 4.7 % was for the module with no heat sink. The module with the diagonal-fin heat sink had an efficiency of 6.5 %. This study confirms that heat sinks can provide some level of cooling for solar panels in order to improve on their electrical efficiencies.</p> Mfon R.E, Al Amri Z, Esaduwha S.O, Echo M.E. Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Physical Sciences Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0300 DEUTERON INDUCED FUSION REACTION TARGET FOR INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION (ICF) <p><strong>&nbsp;Objective: </strong>Energy efficiency enhancement is one of the most effective ways to achieve Fast ignition (FI) in inertial confinement fusion ICF. High energy output gain is essential for ICF reactors and greater energy efficiency can reduce energy costs. The injection of Ion beam is one method used to achieve FI fusion reaction in ICF. A fusion of deuteron with lithium-6 isotope, DLi<sup>6</sup> is reviewed in this work alongside the fusion of Deuterium – Tritium (DT), Deuterium – Deuterium (DD), Deuterium – Helium-3 (DHe<sup>3</sup>) and Proton – Boron-11 (PB<sup>11</sup>).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>In this work, it is proposed the projection of laser-driven deuteron beam in the FI scheme for ICF in the DLi<sup>6</sup> plasma. Fusion occurs as the projected deuteron ion beam hits the lithium-6 target in the thermonuclear fusion reaction.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results show that the fusion reactions of DD, DHe<sup>3</sup> and PB<sup>11</sup> all require high input kinetic energy (Mega-electronvolts) for the fusion process to occur because of higher Coulomb barrier and the probability of fusion increases by increasing the input energy drive with low output energy gain. DT fusion which require low input kinetic energy of about 400 KeV with high cross section and generated considerable high output energy gain of about 17.59 MeV, However this fusion reaction require large tritium inventory and tritium does not occur naturally, therefore the need for tritium breeding. When the energy of deuteron beam is projected at 200 keV to lithium-6 isotope target, although D + Li<sup>6</sup> has a low total cross section of about 19.409 mbarn, the stopping power of the electrons would be more than ions, nuclear stopping power is considerable at very low deuterons energies, the Coulomb interaction of deuteron and lithium-6 occurs with output energy gain of about 22.373 MeV.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The investigations indicate that fusion target energy gain efficiency is independent of lithium-6 numerical density. The highest value of energy efficiency gain occurs with lower input kinetic energy of deuteron beam of about 200 KeV to lithium-target.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong>This findings contribute to the core mission of NIF in achieving fast ignition with low ignition energy input to achieve Lawson break-even or "ignition" point of the fusion fuel pellet, where it gives off 100% or more energy than it absorbs. However the simulation results were based on programmed model of Geant4 Hadr03. This results can be validated with the appropriate experimental design of the Hadr03 process.</p> M.U Ibrahim, A. Rimamsiwe, A. Musa,  F.A. Umar, M.B. Abdullahi,  F. Ahmad, N.F. Isa Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Physical Sciences Fri, 11 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 USING INCIDENT LEARNING IN RADIATION THERAPY: THE FIRST-HAND EXPERIENCE IN A LOW-INCOME SETTING USING CUTTING-EDGE TECHNOLOGY <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To explore the implementation of an incident learning system for quality management of radiotherapy in a low-income radiotherapy setting.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>An incident learning system was specifically designed using the human-centred design, the waterfall model was implemented for error identification and learning of individual incidents. The incidents that occurred in external beam radiotherapy for 8 years, were reported.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion</strong><strong>: </strong>A total of 122 incidents, 49 Near-misses and 28 non-conformance were identified with 4465 patients treated within the 8 years. The total average percentage of 2.73, 1.10, 0.63 and 4.46 were detected for incidents, near miss and non-conformance respectively. The average incident, near miss and non-conformance rate per 100 patients treated were 2.73, 1.10 and 0.63 respectively over the 8-years review period. The highest wrong total dose error of 79 occurred in the eighth year. Trend analysis identifies major improvements in clinical practice by measuring and analyzing patterns of incidents over time. The trending incident levels for each treatment site were in decreasing order of level 4, level 1, level 2, level 5, and level 3.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Treatment status gave an overview of the quality of clinical decisions and implementation in the management of radiotherapy patients. Effective implementation of incident learning can reduce the occurrence of near misses/incidents and enhance the culture of safety.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong>Future iterations, would improve the error tagging and solution recommendation parts, and extend the implementation all radiotherapy centres in the country.</p> Addison Eric. C. D. K, Yankson Ruth, Ngoah Amos, Boakye F, Preko K Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Physical Sciences Fri, 14 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0300