European Journal of Historical Research https://ajpojournals.org/journals/index.php/EJHR <p>The European Journal of Historical Research (EJHR), is an open access journal hosted by AJPO Journals USA LLC.The journal has an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) of 2789-7079. It has developed an international reputation over the years as an important tool of world history, publishing articles on a number of historical subjects by renowned and upcoming historians.</p> <p>The journal is of great significant to scholars of history since it gives credible information and excellent expertise. The journal prides itself for its affordable publishing costs. This gives space for upcoming history researchers who want to publish their scholarly work. Its indexed in google scholar, Crossref (DOI), Ebscohost, Research Gate among others.</p> AJPO Journals Limited en-US European Journal of Historical Research 2789-7079 <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Role of Trade Networks in the Rise and Fall of Empires: A Study of Silk Road and Indian Ocean Trade Routes https://ajpojournals.org/journals/index.php/EJHR/article/view/2031 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of the study was to assess the role of trade networks in the rise and fall of empires: a study of silk road and Indian ocean trade routes.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study adopted a desk methodology. A desk study research design is commonly known as secondary data collection. This is basically collecting data from existing resources preferably because of its low cost advantage as compared to a field research. Our current study looked into already published studies and reports as the data was easily accessed through online journals and libraries.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The study highlighted the pivotal role of trade routes in facilitating cultural exchange, technological diffusion, and economic prosperity across vast regions. The Silk Road, spanning from China to the Mediterranean, served as a conduit for goods, ideas, and religions, fostering connections between diverse civilizations such as the Han Dynasty, Roman Empire, and the Islamic Caliphates. Similarly, the Indian Ocean trade network facilitated commerce between East Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, contributing to the growth of maritime empires like the Maurya, Gupta, and Srivijaya. However, the study also underscored the vulnerability of empires heavily reliant on trade routes, as disruptions such as conflicts, environmental changes, or shifts in economic dynamics could lead to their decline. For instance, the decline of the Roman Empire was partly attributed to the disruption of trade routes by invasions and the collapse of centralized authority. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Implications to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> World-systems theory, dependency theory and network theory may be used to anchor future studies on assessing the role of trade networks in the rise and fall of empires: a study of silk road and Indian ocean trade routes. Encourage interdisciplinary collaboration among scholars, policymakers, practitioners, and stakeholders involved in the study and management of trade networks. Policymakers should formulate trade policies that prioritize inclusivity, sustainability, and equitable development.</p> Bonface Kimani Copyright (c) 2024 Bonface Kimani http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 3 2 12 21 10.47672/ejhr.2031 Impact of Religious Reformation on Political Power Structures in Early Modern Europe https://ajpojournals.org/journals/index.php/EJHR/article/view/2034 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of the study was to assess the impact of religious reformation on political power structures in early modern Europe.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study adopted a desk methodology. A desk study research design is commonly known as secondary data collection. This is basically collecting data from existing resources preferably because of its low cost advantage as compared to a field research. Our current study looked into already published studies and reports as the data was easily accessed through online journals and libraries.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The religious reformation in early modern Europe had a profound impact on political power structures across the continent. Initially sparked by Martin Luther's 95 Theses in 1517, the Protestant Reformation challenged the authority of the Catholic Church and its close ties with political rulers. This led to a fragmentation of religious authority, as new Protestant denominations emerged, each with its own interpretations of scripture and ecclesiastical organization. Consequently, rulers faced internal divisions within their realms as subjects aligned with different religious factions. This fragmentation often led to conflicts, such as the Thirty Years' War, which devastated Central Europe. Additionally, the Reformation contributed to the rise of nation-states and the centralization of political power, as monarchs sought to assert control over religious matters within their realms.</p> <p><strong>Implications to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> Modernization theory, social conflict theory and institutionalism may be used to anchor future studies on assessing the impact of religious reformation on political power structures in early modern Europe. Policymakers and practitioners involved in governance and public administration should consider the lessons learned from historical studies on the impact of Religious Reformation on political power structures. Governments and international organizations should prioritize the protection of religious freedom and minority rights to prevent the recurrence of religious conflicts and persecution witnessed during the Early Modern period&nbsp;</p> John Adinolfi Copyright (c) 2024 John Adinolfi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 3 2 1 11 10.47672/ejhr.2034