American Journal of Online and Distance Learning <p>American Journal of Online and Distance Learning is a peer reviewed journal published by AJPO. This journal emphases on online/distance learning which is done by the use of internet in America. This journal’s content comprises of content such as maintenance of proper delivery structures and the courses offered and their design. This journal further discusses the factors that affect the performance of a student and his or her satisfaction. The American Journal of online and distance learning also shows the faculties and their administrative roles. This journal is useful to teachers, researchers, adult learners and those people who are training in cooperates. For its affordable prices, this journal is incomparable. Low journal fees give future researchers an incentive to publish their research work. This journal is also included in Google scientists and other directories. Furthermore, this journal also adds to the existing literature. The review remarks are issued within a period of two weeks after being reviewed by topnotch Online and Distance learning professors who emphasize on the quality of the journal. Therefore, this journal is appropriate for all the Online and distance learning related studies which is then published in both online and printed versions.</p> AJPO Journals Limited en-US American Journal of Online and Distance Learning Challenges of Online Learning Systems during COVID-19 in the UAE universities and its Effect on Business Students’ Academic Performance <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: All educational institutions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were obliged to remain closed during the COVID-19 pandemic and use online learning instead. This transformation, accelerated the usage of online learning and has placed more challenges to the higher education institutions in terms of students’ academic performance. This paper empirically investigates the factors that were imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic to these online learning systems. E-assessment and social challenges are factors that need to be addressed as they had not been extensively studied before the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: This study was designed as a quantitative research study using the convenience sampling technique to select students. The data was collected using online surveys distributed amongst undergraduate students in different business colleges around the UAE. The research model was assessed based on an analysis of 202 undergraduates’ students. The data collected was analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics 26, and Smart PLS Structural Equation Modeling.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The results indicate that teaching challenges negatively affect students' performance, while the factors influencing the greatest impact are the assessment, technical, social, and communication challenges on UAE Business students’ online learning and academic performance during COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy<em>:</em></strong> this study provides a valuable perspective for understanding and explaining the challenges of student online learning and academic performance, as it emphasizes and recommends a reviewing of the teaching methodologies and tools to align with present-day online teaching and learning. Training is essential in order to enhance the academic staff’s qualifications and technical skills during the COVID-19 ongoing situation.</p> Rima Shishakly Ariba Sabah Copyright (c) 2021 American Journal of Online and Distance Learning 2021-08-05 2021-08-05 3 1 1 24 10.47672/ajodl.757 Usage and Security of Examination Modes of Assessment: A Survey of Two Universities in South Western Uganda <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Academic institutions are faced with challenges related to usage and security of existing modes of assessment. Security issues include confidentiality, integrity and availability while usage issues include complexity, compatibility, accessibility and flexibility.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study assessed three modes of assessment used in universities and these include electronic, paper-based and oral. A cross sectional survey was conducted where quantitative methods were used to determine the mode of assessment that is more secure and acceptable. Participants for the study were students and lecturers from Bishop Stuart University and Mbarara University of Science and Technology. The study population was 411 and a sample of 352 participants was obtained using the Krejcie and Morgan formula. A questionnaire tool was used for data collection and SPSS software was used for data analysis to generate descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Results obtained from the study show that usage is ranked at 63.68% for paper based assessment, 68.76% for electronic and 60.28% for oral assessment. Analysis of security issues suggests that electronic assessment (67.72%) is more secure than paper based (63.0%) and oral assessment (62.32%). Although the paper based mode of assessment ranked best in usage, the method faces challenges such as poor computation of marks, poor storage of answer scripts and a slow feedback process. The results show that much as electronic mode of assessment ranked best using security parameters, the mode is not widely used because of its limited question types. Incorporation of various question types in the electronic mode of assessment will increase choice of questions and improve its adoption and usage in academic institutions.</p> <p><strong>Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy:</strong> This study established that, there is need for developing an electronic examinations framework that incorporates various question types, electronic free handwriting and electronic answer booklets to the current university examination process and procedures more robust and appropriate. The study contributes to the body of knowledge since it was found that, in the use of electronic learning technologies in the administration of examinations in Ugandan universities is not robust and appropriate for commonly used essay question types, also it was found out that, these technologies lack electronic free-handwriting, hence the need for a framework to address such gaps.</p> Deborah Natumanya Evarist Nabaasa Pius Ariho Copyright (c) 2021 American Journal of Online and Distance Learning 2021-10-21 2021-10-21 3 1 25 36 10.47672/ajodl.820