American Journal of Natural Sciences <p>American Journal of Natural Sciences is a quality and proficient journal acknowledged for its crucial information published by AJPO. The journal gathers knowledge on various environmental adaptations, interdependence of the various factors in the natural settings, habitats, climate, man and the natural world. The aspects focused on are physical, earth and life sciences. The journal is popular owing to its affordability to the researchers in publishing their manuscripts. The article publication is swift, in a period within two weeks of manuscript submission for publishing. The journal features in the google scholar among other indices, therefore allows referencing in other related studies in the same field research by other authors. The articles for publication undergo a double blind peer review process thus promoting proficiency of the journal. The authors have an added advantage in that they can access the metrics of the number of article views and downloads in the journal. The journal serves as a template to other authors in preparation of their articles for publishing.</p> AJPO Journals Limited en-US American Journal of Natural Sciences A Review on Markhor (Capra falconeri falconeri Wagner 1839) population trends (2016-2019) and community-based conservation in Toshi Shasha, Gehrait Goleen, Kaigah Kohistan Conservancies and Chitral Gol National Park, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Recognizing the dynamics of ungulate populations is vital because of their economic and ecological significance. The dry temperate ecosystem of Hindu Kush is one of the most remarkable and significant mountain ranges, which supports near threatened markhor population in districts Chitral and Kohistan of Pakistan. However, the current population trends and community-based management of markhor are data lacking or unrevealed, requiring a crucial need for research to examine. The central goal of this study is to review population trends (2016-2019) of markhor and community-based conservation in Toshi Shasha, Gehrait Goleen conservancies, Chitral Gol National Park in district Chitral and Kaigah conservancy in district Kohistan using well developed questionnaire.</p><p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Review of existing record of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Wildlife Department Pakistan through a well-developed questionnaire</p><p><strong>Findings:</strong> The finding revealed that over a period of four years population of markhor enlarged to 5658 individuals, fawn population to 2185, female population to 1589, young population to 1491 and the trophy size male increased to 850. Community based conservation resulted 15 markhor trophy hunts in Toshi Shasha, Gehrait Goleen and Kaigah conservancies with gross income of USD 5770400 except Chitral Gol National Park where trophy hunting is not allowed under Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Wildlife and Biodiversity Act 2015.</p><p><strong>Unique contribution to the theory, practice and policy:</strong>The author recommended that, As the government has fixed Markhor trophy hunting quota of hunting four animals per year in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. This quota of Markhor trophy hunting should not be fixed but should be based on population of Markhor with reference to trophy size male. The present quota of four Markhor trophy hunt need to be increase from 4 animals per year to 1% leading to 2% of the population of markhor. As the population of Markhor in Chitral Gol National Park Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan has been increased to 2926 individuals and have enlarged to buffer zone of the National Park. At least 1% of Markhor trophy hunts in buffer zone is recommended to support local community for their livelihood improvement and encouragement of the conservation. The community organizations should be strengthened in terms of establishing their offices, field equipment and mobility beside protection.</p> Syed Fazal Baqi Kakakhel Copyright (c) 2020 American Journal of Natural Sciences 2020-09-16 2020-09-16 3 1 1 18 10.47672/ajns.569